Leipzig Trade Fair , started in the Middle Ages , became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleisse in Leipzig dating back to , when the Margrave Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas. The foundation of the University of Leipzig in initiated the city’s development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, and towards being the location of the Reichsgericht Imperial Court of Justice and the German National Library founded in During the Thirty Years’ War , two battles took place in Breitenfeld , about 8 kilometres 5. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in and the second in Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December , an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the lanterns. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon ‘s presence in Germany and would ultimately lead to his first exile on Elba. In the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed.
The Swedes turned the sack of Magdeburg to good use: By the time he reached the Saxon border, his force had grown to over 23, men. Strategic importance of Saxony[ edit ] In order for Swedes to attack the Imperial troops in the south, they needed to pass through Saxony in the night. The Electorate of Saxony had not been affected by war and had large quantities of resources that each army could utilise.
In midsummer, General Tilly asked John George I for permission to pass through the territory; the elector declined permission, noting that Saxony had not been ravaged by war yet.
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Practical Information How to apply to universities in the Czech Republic Each university in the Czech Republic has its own system on their website that allows future students to apply for and enrol in their degree programmes. So, once you select the university of your choice, you can go through their application and submit your materials there. These courses will also prepare you for any of the English-language tests that universities require.
The certificates generally accepted by the universities in the Czech Republic are: Plus, your instructors will be able to give you extra, individual assistance if you need it. Tuition fees for universities in the Czech Republic Universities in the Czech Republic are separated between public and private institutions.
The public universities are cheaper; however, the cost to can vary depending on the language of instruction.
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Unfortunately, a quarter of the whole town had recently been devastated by fire; it was difficult for him to find suitable dwellings, and he was thus forced to pay a high rent. Nevertheless, shortly after his arrival, he brought his cousin Maria Barbara from Arnstadt, and on October 17th he married her at the small church in the picturesque little village of Dornheim. Maria Barbara came of a branch of the musical Bach family, her father being organist at Gehren.
This success gave Bach the courage to put in a long and detailed report, proposing a complete renovation and improvement of the organ in the St Blasiuskirche. The Council agreed to carry out the renovation and improvements, and Bach was given the task of supervising the work, for not only was he now a brilliant player, he had also become an expert on the construction of organs. Bach was apprehensive of the latter’s growing influence, in addition to the fact that his immediate superior was a Pietist.
The Council had little option but to allow his departure. However, the situation was concluded quite amicably and Bach was asked that he should continue to supervise the rebuilding of the St Blasiuskirche organ. This he did, and some time in he came over to inaugurate its first performance. Not least was his employer, the Duke of Sachsen-Weimar, one of the most distinguished and cultured nobles of his time. Bach’s two-fold position as member of the chamber orchestra and as Organist to the Court offered him many opportunities for improvement.
The Court Orchestra consisted of about 22 players: Bach’s function in the orchestra was mainly as a violinist, however he also played the harpsichord and occasionally wrote or arranged some of the music.
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Tom Heneghan As Germany celebrates the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, some Protestants feel the crucial role their church played in shepharding the democracy movement to success is quietly being overlooked. This seems strange to someone like myself who reported on those eventsback then. Any reporter in Berlin in the tense weeks before Nov.
Thomas Church Thomaskirche , the pastor mentioned the point in a sermon.
Typical mid 19th c cover Typical pink cover, for works in copyright ca. The works of Richard Strauss that were originally issued by Joseph Aibl later Universal were acquired by Hinrichsen for Peters in Hinrichsen’s sons Max , Walter , and Hans-Joachim all entered the business in the s. His brother Walter moved to New York where he founded C. By , the Nazi regime forced Henri and Hans-Joachim Hinrichsen to turn over the company to Johannes Petschull , who later established the Frankfurt company in in an uncomfortable partnership with the Hinrichsen heirs Walter and Max.
In spite of suffering as much damage as other Leipzig publishers from Allied aerial bombing during the war, Peters’ Leipzig facility was re-opened in and transferred to state ownership of the East German regime by
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Cardiff Studies in Archaeology. Masters modules in Neolithic Europe. PhD supervisions Projects The times of their lives: The project offers ground-breaking progress towards the construction of much more precise chronologies for the Neolithic period in Europe, particularly focused on phases after initial transformations, through a proven combination of expertise in Neolithic archaeology and Bayesian statistical analysis.
The plaintiffs in the case dating back to are Canada’s Airia Brands Inc., Britain’s Ltd., and Germany’s Quick Cargo Service. The case relates to the same alleged air cargo cartel for which the European Commission fined eleven airlines EUR million euros (USD million) in
Former asylum site consisting of several buildings including a lodge, administration building, wards, former nurses’ home, villas and associated service buildings, all in an Edwardian Baroque style. The buildings are situated in a wooded, semi-rural site close to a main road. All the buildings are of red sandstone with ashlar margins and the majority have base courses. There are raised margins around many of the windows. There is a variety of windows including some multi-pane timber sash and case and some non-traditional windows and many of the dormers are flat-roofed.
The roofs are all in grey slate with cast-iron rainwater goods, and several of the buildings have distinctive decorative roof ventilators and tall slim coped stacks. The entrance elevation to the south has a rusticated doorpiece with broken segmental-arched pediment and there is a dentilled cornice. There are 5-bays to the centre with flanking advanced pyramid-roofed stair case pavilions, and end bays have canted window bays and pediments.
The ward wing to east has a canted entrance bay with decorative roof ventilator above. There are some later 20th century flat-roofed extensions. Part of the interior was seen in
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For more details please refer to our terms of usage. Download Corpora The Leipzig Corpora Collection presents corpora in different languages using the same format and comparable sources. All data are available as plain text files and can be imported into a MySQL database by using the provided import script. They are intended both for scientific use by corpus linguists as well as for applications such as knowledge extraction programs.
The corpora are identical in format and similar in size and content. They contain randomly selected sentences in the language of the corpus and are available in sizes from 10, sentences up to 1 million sentences.
Being a Student in Jena, Science and Scientists Live, Strength through Cooperation, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
East German Time Warp: It gives an intriguing glimpse into everyday life in communist times. A long-abandoned apartment has given a glimpse into life in communist East Germany. Almost 20 years after the fall fo the Berlin Wall an architect has come across an abandoned apartment in the eastern German city of Leipzig where time has stood still since the communist era.
It evidently hasn’t been touched since early , before the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the place is filled with East German furniture, fittings and grocery brands that give a glimpse of everyday life in the communist German Democratic Republic GDR 20 years ago. Mark Aretz, an architect who renovates buildings in eastern Germany, inadvertently walked into history while he was refurbishing a building in the Leipzig district of Reudnitz last week. When he unlocked an apartment on the third floor it was as if he had stepped out of a time machine into the humdrum surroundings of the kind of apartment millions of East Germans once lived in.
A wall calendar showed August , and the kitchen cupboard and drawers contained plastic crockery and aluminium cutlery along with food brands that would delight fans of GDR nostalgia these days: The apartment has no toilet — there’s a public one on the landing — and there’s a zinc bath standing upright against the wall next to the wardrobe in the bedroom. Everything in the flat was made in East Germany apart from a West German bottle of Henkel deodorant — someone must have brought that over from the West, the architect assumes.
Aretz said the occupant appears to have left in a hurry at some point during the months of confusion that preceded the fall of the Berlin Wall in November , and that documents and letters showed he was a year-old-man who had been in trouble with the authorities. The most recent document was dated May — a police search warrant for a caravan.
There was also a stamped and addressed postcard written by the occupant, but he had never sent it. Aretz and his team of builders have refurbished more than buildings with more than a thousand apartments in eastern Germany since , but he said it was rare to find a place so completely untouched.
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Including Greek texts, Latin texts, commentaries, encyclopedias, dictionaries, grammars and grammar lookup, dictionary lookup, commentary finder, and parser. For almost half a century, The Oxford Classical Dictionary has been regarded as the unrivalled one-volume reference work on all aspects of the Graeco-Roman world. It provides both scholars and non-specialists with a comprehensive source of reference which aims to answer all their questions about the classical world.
Written by the very best of classical scholars from all over the world, the Dictionary provides coverage of Greek and Roman history, literature, myth, religion, linguistics, philosophy, law, science, art and archaeology, and topics in near eastern studies and late antiquity.
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Author Contributed A composite reconstruction of the earliest known Homo sapiens fossils from Jebel Irhoud, based on microcomputed tomographic scans of multiple original fossils. The finds — reported on the front cover of Nature — are dated to about , years ago and represent the oldest securely aged fossil evidence of our own species. Jebel Irhoud has been well known since the s for its human fossils and its Middle Stone Age artefacts but the interpretation of the Irhoud hominins has long been complicated because of persistent uncertainties surrounding their geological age.
The crania of modern humans living today are characterised by a combination of features that distinguish us from our fossil relatives and ancestors — a small and gracile face, and globular braincase. The fossils from Jebel Irhoud display a modern-looking face and teeth, and a large but more archaic-looking braincase. In the 90s there were a few sites found in Ethiopia dated to , years and now with these results the origins of modern humans are further pushed back to , years.
So there are only two or three fossils that document the arrival of modern humans in Europe some 45, ago. This shows our species has a very deep history in Africa. The mandible Irhoud 11 is the first, almost complete adult mandible discovered at the site of Jebel Irhoud. Australia and neighbouring Southeast Asia.
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